There are some parameters that must be determined prior to the construction of the cold storage. These parameters must be accurately determined in order for the system and units to work with high efficiency over many years and to avoid increasing energy consumption.
1- Determination of the type of cold storage
It is important that the cold storage is used for what purpose.
Pre-cooling chamber: Used for pre-cooling of products in the range of 0/+ 8 °C.
Cold storage room (cool room): Used for cold storage in the range of + 8/+ 14 °C.
Cold storage chamber: Used for cold storage in the range of -1/+ 8 °C
Frozen storage chamber: Used for the preservation of frozen products in the range of -18/-24 °C
Blast freezing chamber:-35/-45 °C used for the blast freeze of the range.
2- The type of products to be stored
Only one type of product should be stored in each room of the warehouse. Different products can be stored together if the product is in enclosed packaging and the storage temperatures match.
3- Product storage temperature and relative humidity
When designing a refrigerated warehouse, the calculation is done according to the type of products to be stored. The incorrectly selected temperature can lead to shorter storage and shelf life of the products.
4- Entry temperature of the product to the warehouse
In order to determine the cooling capacity, it is important that the products are delivered to the warehouse at which temperature.
5- Daily entry amount to the warehouse of the products
According to the number of products to enter the warehouse; Forklift, number of employees, trucks, truck parking area, etc. are determined.
6- Packaging types of products
Depending on the storage type of the products; Carton box, parcel, pallet, chassis, the stacked type can be stored.
7- Cold storage dimensions
The dimensions of the room are determined according to the required capacity, terrain and zoning status.
8- Number of rooms to be built in the warehouse
The number of rooms can be determined according to the circulation speed and quantity of the products. If the rooms are too big, it takes longer to unload or too small to increase the initial investment cost.
9- Geographical conditions of the place where the cold storage is to be built
Factors such as the outside weather conditions, relative humidity, are important in the correct calculation of the cooling load to be determined for the product to be calculated in the warehouse.
10- Cold storage construction type
Cold storage can be made of reinforced concrete or steel construction. The rooms must be insulated to reduce heat gain from the floor, walls and ceiling.
11- Door type
Doors in cold storage, heat gain formation and cost is one of the determining factors. Therefore, the correct door types must be selected.
Sliding door: Used as the door of the cold rooms. It must be at the height and width that the forklift can pass.
Impact door: Used in corridor crossings with transitions from the business area to the warehouse space.
Sectional door: Used to separate the external area with the processing or loading area.
Source: Food Safety and cold chain, Edt: Prof. Dr. Y. Onur Devres ISTANBUL Technical University Department of Food Engineering Maslak-Istanbul, iskıd HVAC-R Refrigeration Air conditioner Manufacturers Association (www.iskid.org.tr), Food Safety Association (www.ggd.org.tr).